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Chapter II



The Sovereignty of the Empire is vested in the Emperor and the supreme authority
over all the affairs of the Empire is exercised by Him as the Head of State, in the
manner provided for in the present Constitution.


The Emperor determines the organization, powers and duties of all Ministers,
executive departments and the administrations of Government and appoints,
promotes, transfers, suspends and dismisses the officials of the same.


The Emperor appoints Mayors of the municipalities referred to in Artical 129 of the
present Constitution, from three candidates presented, in each case, by the Municipal
Councils thereof.


The Emperor reserves the right, with the advice and consent of Parliament, to declare
war. He, further, reserves the right to decide what armed forces shall be maintained,
both in time of peace and in time of war. As Commander-in-Chief of the Armed
Forces, He has the right to organize and command the said forces; to commission and
to confer military rank upon officers of the said forces; and to promote, transfer or
dismiss any of the said officers. He has, further, the right to declare a state of siege,
martial law, or a national emergency, and to take such measures as are necessary to
meet a threat to the defence or integrity of the Empire and to assure its defences and


The Emperor exercises the supreme direction of the foreign relations of the Empire.
The Emperor accredits and recieves Ambassadors, Ministers and Missions; He, alone,
has the right to settle disputes with foreign Powers by adjudication and other
peaceful means, and provides for and agrees to measures of co-operation with
foreign Powers for the realization of the ends of security and common defence. He,
alone, has the right to ratify, on behalf of Ethiopia, treaties and other international
agreements, and to determine which treaties and international agreements shall be
subject to ratification before becoming binding upon the Empire. However, all
treaties of peace and all treaties and international agreements involving a
modification of the territory of the Empire, or of sovereignty jurisdiction over any
part of such territory, or laying a burden on Ethiopian subjects personally, or
modifying legislation in existence, or requiring expenditures of state funds, or
involving loans or monopolies, shall, before becoming binding upon the Empire and
the inhabitants thereof, be laid before Parliament, and if both the Houses of
Parliament shall approve the same in accordance with the provisions of Articals
88-90 inclusive of the present Constitution, shall then be submitted to the Emperor
for ratification.


(a)  The Emperor alone confers and withdraws the title of Prince and other honours,
and institutes new orders.

(b)  Without His special leave, no Ethiopian subject, nor any foreign national in any
Government service in the Empire, may accept any honour, insignia of order, dignity,
or title of or from, a foreign government. The granting of any title, honour or order
may exempt no one from the common duties and burdens of the subjects, nor may it
carry any preferential admission to offices of the State.

(c)  Officials who are released from office with any assurances of Imperial favour,
retain the title and rank of the office they have filled.

(d)  The Emperor also makes grants from abandoned properties, and properties in
escheat, for the perpose of recompensing faithful service to the Crown.


The Emperor has the right to coin, print, and issue money.


The Emperor has the right to convene the annual sessions of the deliberative
Chambers and to convoke extraordinary sessions thereof. At the opening of each
session of Chambers, He may present, or cause to be presented, a speech from the
Throne concerning the legislative program recommended by Him. He has the right to
postpone the opening of and to suspend, for not more than thirty days, and to extend,
any session of Parliament. He has the right to dissolve the Chambers, or either of
them, by an Order, providing at the same time for the appointment of a new Senate or
the election of a new Chamber of Deputies, or both, as the case may be, and for the
convocation of the Chamber for session within four months from the date of the


In accordance with the provisions of Articals 86, 88, 91, and 92 of the present
Constitution, the Emperor has the right to initiate legislation and to originate other
resolutions and to proclaim all laws, after the same shall have been passed by the


The Emperor has the right and the duty to maintain justice through the courts; and
the right to grant pardons and amnesties and to commute penalties.


The Emperor, as Sovereign, has the duty to take all measures that may be necessary
to ensure, at all times, the defence and integrity of the Empire; the safety and welfare
of its inhabitants, including their enjoyment of the human rights and fundamental
liberties recognized in the present Constitution; and the protection of all His Subjects
and their rights and interests abroad. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution,
He has all the right and powers necessary for the accomplishment of the ends set out
in the present Artical.